Lithium is the third element in the periodic table. It has three protons with an atomic mass of 6.941.lithium is a mixture of two isotopes. Lithium 6 and 7. lithium 7 accounts for over three-quarters of the natural abundance of the element. Lithium doesn’t occur freely in nature. However, it is found in nearly all igneous rocks and relatively small amounts in mineral springs.
1. Pure lithium metal is extremely highly corrosive and demands special handling.
It reacts with water and air. It is stored under oil or enclosed in an inert atmosphere. In case lithium catches fire, it is difficult to extinguish the flames. This is because the reaction with oxygen is highly explosive.
2. Lithium is the lightest metal.
It is the least dense element in the periodic table. Lithium contains a density of about half that of water. It floats in water. Lithium metal burns white flame. It also imparts a crimson color to the white flame.
3. lithium is believed to be produced during the big bang theory.
According to the theory, during the formation of the planets, the remaining small gaseous materials that formed rocks, lithium, were then formed. It has a melting point of 356.90 F with a boiling point of 2426 F.it is an alkali metal in the periodic table.
4. Lithium is also used in iron casting.
Lithium fluoride is used in aluminum smelting additives. It reduces the melting point of aluminum and increases its electrical resistance greatly. It plays a role as an additive to foundry sand to reduce veining.
5. Lithium was first discovered by Johan Arfvedson in 1817 in Stockholm, Sweden, during an analysis of petalite.
The petalite, as Johan believed, contained an extra alkali metal. He tried to isolate the metal, but it was unsuccessful. The metal was isolated the second year by English chemist Humphry Davy and Swedish chemist William Brande both of whom were working independently. Humphry obtained a small quantity of lithium metal by electrolysis of lithium carbonate. He acknowledged the new element had a red flame color which produced an alkali solution when he tried to dissolve in water.
6. Lithium manufactured based batteries have revolutionized use devices such as computers and mobile phones.
Lithium batteries deliver extra energy for a given battery weight than batteries manufactured from other metals. Lithium batteries have a high energy density.
7. Modifying lithium to tritium was the first artificial nuclear fusion reaction.
Lithium is used in nuclear reactors. A nuclear reaction occurs when a lithium isotope is irradiated with thermal neutrons. A tritium atom is formed as a result used as fuel in nuclear fusion reactors. This is efficient by the reaction between deuterium and tritium. This yields 17.6 MeV per reaction.
8. Lithium ore deposits were first exploited commercially in 1901.
The Maywood Chemical Works started the production of lithium chemicals in the country. Its application in 1918 contributed to the growth of the lithium market in Germany. A German company was the first producer of lithium carbonate from lithium on an industrial scale. Since its exploitation, lithium has been used as a source of nuclear weapons.
9. Lithium is the softest metal.
A knife can cut lithium.